However, those managers were “no longer flavour of the month”, and demand had now shifted to the less-leveraged players in the middle market. “The challenge here is that these players might only be raising $US1.5 to 2 billion per fund, and they are becoming over-subscribed,” Collier said. “They’re the ones that take serious resources to find and access.” Many of these “growthoriented” mid-market private equity managers were popping up in China and India, Collier said, where there were really no buyout market to speak of. Pantheon launched its first Asian private equity fund-of-funds in 1994, and raised its last one in 2006, closing it at US$800 million for the seven-year closed-end vehicle.
Collier defended the private equity practice of charging fees on committed capital. To do otherwise would encourage general partners to make deals no matter what. “As 2007 progressed our managers slowed down on new investments, and it was that fee structure which allowed them to do that.” The Pantheon partner allowed that more “fee discussions” were happening in the cost-conscious age following the global financial crisis. She cited the recent example of a Missouri-based institution bargaining a private equity manager into paying 80 per cent of transaction costs for deals made on its behalf, where the historical norm has been a 50:50 split between the general and limited partners.